AreYouReady

 

Want to get your pump on, shape up or learn to eat healthier?

This guide has been designed to help individuals, like you, on your personal fitness and nutrition adventure.

The first step on the road to a fitter and healthier lifestyle is the hardest. It’s a tough ol’ journey in which many of us decide to tackle, but it’s rewarding and one that’s undoubtedly worth enduring.

If you’re a beginner who doesn’t know where to start, or someone who sees fitness as intimidating and nutrition as confusing, this guide will put out those flames of fear and make it simple, one day at a time. By the end, you’ll know how to make smarter lifestyle choices and be more aware of the types of fitness and nutrition for your body.

To help you all become acquainted with and more knowledgeable about Fitness and Nutrition, we have split the guide in to a simple, four step process, as follows. Each of these sections highlight how we can each achieve a healthier lifestyle:

 

 

Step 1: Know Your Body Type & Your Goal

Acknowledging your body’s natural shape is of invaluable help. Once you become aware of your “somatotype”, you can realise a fitness goal and understand the type(s) of training that should be incorporated in to your routines.

 

Step 2: Fitness Training For Your Body Type/Goal

Completed step 1? Congratulations, it’s clear that you want to make a positive to change to your lifestyle. Good for you! Now it’s time to become more knowledgeable about the types of training that are best suited for you and your goals. Check out these various exercises that will enable you to progress.

 

Step 3: Diet For Your Body Type

Understanding nutrients; what they do and where we can find them is probably the toughest step of all. But we will help you plan your diet and tailor it specific to your goal. These nutrients are required for either losing, gaining or maintaining weight.

 

Step 4: Nutritional Information

Here you will find further facts and info about nutrition. There are six different nutrients in total, which are split into two different categories; Macronutrients and Micronutrients. Learn about each nutrient and their food sources.

 

Discover Your Body Type

Train for hours during the week only to find your not seeing results?

Our body shape and genetics influence how we respond to diet and exercise. Before beginning your health quest, understanding your own natural frame can help you to better tailor a training regime, diet plan and become more realistic about long-term goals.

As illustrated in the graphics below, there are three ‘somatotypes’ that dictate our body type. These are; Ectomorph, Mesomorph and Endomorph, although you may find yourself falling in between any two, which is common, so don’t worry!

We are all different in so many ways. Our level of fitness, genetics, metabolic rates and body type, to name a few. So why do we train like everyone else and pick a diet that we think ought to work?

Just as we’re all different, our bodies would all react differently to the same exercise stimulus and even more so, our diets. Apply the same workout and diet to a range of different body types and we’ll get different results.

We need to choose the correct way to train that is in line with our goals and pick the right type of diet for our body type in order to maximize our results.

 

 Ectomorph  Mesomorph  Endomorph

Ectomorph

Mesomorph

Endomorph

 

Ectomorph Traits

Tend to be small and skinny, with a bony, squarer frame. Usually have small wrists and longer limbs. This body type can stay lean all year round without even trying, but find it difficult to put on weight or muscle, hence the nickname; hardgainer.

  • Smaller frame and bone structure
  • Faster metabolism
  • Lean muscle mass
  • Small shoulders and flat chest
  • Finds it harder to gain weight

 

Mesomorph Traits

Boys, do we envy this group! More of a natural athletic physique, with broader shoulders and a more muscular frame. Packs on muscle more easily and can stay reasonably lean. This is the best of both world’s if aesthetics is the main goal.

  • Athletic physique
  • Defined muscles
  • Easier to gain muscle
  • Easier to gain fat (to that of ectomorphs)
  • Naturally harder – denser bone structure

 

Endomorph Traits

‘The fuller figure’. Tend to have a stockier, rounder build and more body fat. Gains weight more easily, but finds it harder to slim down. Muscles are naturally quite strong, particularly in the lower body and can build muscle more easily to that of Ectomorphs.

  • Soft, round physique
  • Very easy to gain muscle/fat
  • Stocky build
  • Slower metabolism
  • Harder to lose weight
  • Muscles not-so defined

 

Running

 

Fitness Training For Your Body Type

If you’re a newbie to the whole fitness scene, knowing how to approach your goals can be a little daunting, particularly at first. Setting yourself a target or realising a goal, and knowing what type of physique you have will make things a little clearer on the fitness front. And so, we have devised training programmes for each body type with the following goals in mind.

  • Ectomorph to build muscle.
  • Mesomorph to build muscle and tone.
  • Endomorph to lose weight and build muscle.

There are three types of training methods; weight training, cardiovascular and weights & cardio circuits. As highlighted in the table below, you can see which are most appropriate for each body type.

 

Body Type

Weight Training

Cardiovascular Training

Weights/Cardio Circuits

Ectomorph

✓✓✓

   

Mesomorph

✓✓

 

Endomorph

✓✓

✓✓✓

 

Weight Training – Consists of lifting heavy free weights and machines, of only an anaerobic nature.

Cardiovascular Training – Consists of a variety of aerobic training, such as rowing, jogging, swimming.

Weights/Cardio Circuits – Consists of a combination of both where free weights are used (lighter than those used in weight training), with cardio incorporated into the series of exercises performed back to back, with short rest periods.

 

Conquer

 

Ectomorph Training Routine – To Build Muscle

Training Frequency– 4x per week.
Training Routine– Split body parts.

Day 1– Quads, hamstrings, glutes & calves.
Day 2– Chest, biceps.
Day 3– Rest day.
Day 4– Back, triceps.
Day 5– Shoulders, traps & abs.
Day 6 & 7– Rest days.

Tips– Limit each session to around 45 minutes. Try to vary the order of the exercises in which they are performed. When executing each exercise, keep proper form and technique as this will enhance the muscle building process and prevent injury.

 

Day 1 – Legs

Sets

Reps

Rest

Barbell Leg Squat

4

10

60 secs

Single Leg Machine Press

3

12/leg

Machine Leg Extensions

3

12

Barbell Conventional Deadlift

4

10

Machine Leg Curl

3

12

Day 2 – Chest & Biceps

Barbell Bench Press

4

10

60 secs

Dumbell Chest Flyes

3

12/leg

Incline Dumbell Chest Press

4

10

Dumbell Pullovers

3

12

EZ Bar Bicep Curls

3

12

Seated Incline Dumbell Curls

3

12

Cable Hammer Curls

3

12

Day 4 – Back & Triceps

Barbell Bentover Row

4

10

60 secs

Machine Lat Pulldown

4

10

Machine/Cable Seated Row

4

10

Vertical Tricep Dips

3

12

Cable Tricep Pushdowns

3

12

EZ Bar Skull Crushers

3

12

Day 5 – Shoulders, Traps & Abs

Barbell Overhead Press

4

10

60 secs

Dumbell Lateral Raises

4

10

Dumbell Reverse Flyes

4

10

EZ Bar Upright Rows

3

12

Dumbell Shrugs

3

12

Reverse Crunch

3

15

Forward Crunch

3

15

Side Oblique Crunch

3

15

 

 

Mesomorph Training Routine – To Build Muscle & Tone

Training Frequency– 5x per week.
Training Routine– Split body parts.

Day 1– Quads, hamstrings, glutes & calves.
Day 2– Chest, biceps, HIIT.
Day 3– Rest day.
Day 4– Back, triceps, HIIT.
Day 5– Shoulders, traps & abs.
Day 6– Steady state cardio.
Day 7– Rest Day.

Tips– Experiment with different exercises and perform them in a different order to target additional muscle groups and prevent the body from hitting a plateau. Work out for around 60 minutes per session and incorporate both isolation and compound movements.

 

Day 1 – Legs

Sets

Reps

Rest

Barbell Leg Squat

4

10

60 secs

Single Leg Machine Press

3

12/leg

Machine Leg Extensions

3

12

Barbell Conventional Deadlift

4

10

Machine Leg Curl

3

12

Day 2 – Chest, Biceps & HIIT

Barbell Bench Press

4

10

60 secs

Dumbell Chest Flyes

3

12/leg

Incline Dumbell Chest Press

4

10

Dumbell Pullovers

3

12

EZ Bar Bicep Curls

3

12

Seated Incline Dumbell Curls

3

12

Cable Hammer Curls

3

12

High Intensity Interval Sprints

6

30s > 60s

Day 4 – Back & Triceps

Barbell Bentover Row

4

10

60 secs

Machine Lat Pulldown

4

10

Machine/Cable Seated Row

4

10

Vertical Tricep Dips

3

12

Cable Tricep Pushdowns

3

12

EZ Bar Skull Crushers

3

12

High Intensity Interval Sprints

6

60s > 90s

90 secs

Day 5 – Shoulders, Traps & Abs

Barbell Overhead Press

4

10

60 secs

Dumbell Lateral Raises

4

10

Dumbell Reverse Flyes

4

10

EZ Bar Upright Rows

3

12

Dumbell Shrugs

3

12

Reverse Crunch

3

15

Forward Crunch

3

15

Side Oblique Crunch

3

15

Day 6 – Steady State Cardio

Treadmill/Outdoor Jog
Total Time = 38 minutes.

Warm up 2 mins.
1 min high intensity, followed by 2 mins moderate intensity x 3.
5 mins at low intensity.
20 mins at moderate intensity.
Cooldown for 2 mins.

 

 

Endomorph Training Routine – To Lose Weight & Build Muscle

Training Frequency– 6x per week.
Training Routine– Full body workout.

Day 1– Upper body strength, HIIT.
Day 2– Circuits – Strength supersets.
Day 3– Steady state cardio.
Day 4– Lower body strength, HIIT.
Day 5– Circuits – Bodyweight.
Day 6– Steady state cardio.
Day 7– Rest Day.

Tips– Work at a greater intensity to burn extra calories. Vary the methods of training, e.g, supersets, trisets and circuits. To burn fat and build muscle, cardiovascular and weight training exercises are as equally important.

 

Day 1 – Upper Body Strength

Sets

Reps

Rest

Machine Lat Pulldown

5

6

90 secs

Barbell Bent Over Row

5

6

Barbell Bench Press

5

6

Barbell Overhead Press

5

6

Max Intensity Interval Sprints

6

30s > 60s

60 secs

Day 2 – Superset Circuits

Dumbell Overhead Press > Machine Lat Pulldown

Min 6 in 10 mins.

12 > 12

60 secs

Incline Dumbell Bench Press > 1 Arm Dumbell Bent Over Row

4

10 > 12

Cable Squat Row > Pushups

4

15 > 10

Burpees > High Knees

4

10 > 30/side

30 secs

Day 3 – Steady State Cardio

Treadmill/Outdoor Jog
Total Time = 38 minutes.

Warm up 2 mins.
1 min high intensity, followed by 2 mins moderate intensity x 3.
5 mins at low intensity.
20 mins at moderate intensity.
Cooldown for 2 mins.

Day 4 – Lower Body Strength

Barbell Back Squat

5

6

60 secs

Barbell Deadlift

5

6

Machine Leg Extension

3

12

Machine Leg Curl

3

12

Max Intensity Interval Sprints

6

60s > 90s

Treadmill/Outdoor Jog
Total Time = 38 minutes.

Warm up 2 mins.
1 min high intensity, followed by 2 mins moderate intensity x 3.
5 mins at low intensity.
20 mins at moderate intensity.
Cooldown for 2 mins.

Day 5 – Bodyweight Circuits

Walkouts > High Knees > Pushups > Sit-ups

4

10 > 30/leg > 10 > 15/leg

No rest

Jumping Jacks > Double Ab Crunch > Spiderman Climb > 30sec Plank

4

30 > 15 > 10/side > 30sec

Day 6 – Steady State Cardio

Treadmill/Outdoor Jog
Total Time = 38 minutes.

Same as Day 3.

 

 

Barbell

 

 

What’s Your Body Type Nutrition?

By now you will have established your body type and understood the type of fitness training most suitable for you and your goal. So the next step is to consider the type of diet that you should follow in order to meet the needs and demands of your body.

There is no strict diet law, and everybody is different, but an effective starting point for all is the Macronutrient Ratio. It is a method that is well worth knowing and bearing in mind, because it can really help individuals to get a grasp on their daily calorie quota.

It could be the difference between losing those extra pounds or gaining that extra ounce of muscle.

 

But, what is the Macronutrient Ratio?

Simply put, the Macronutrient Ratio consists of three essential nutrients; Carbohydrates, Protein and Fat, which the body requires in order to function properly. These are the only nutrients that provide the body with calories.

Using the following three step mathematic process, we can calculate our calorie and Macronutrient totals.

Then, from this, we can then determine how many calories we require in a day, depending upon our activity levels. The final step then takes our total and fitness goal in to consideration to calculate our approximate daily calorie requirement.

Use the following method:

 

Step 1: Resting Metabolic Rate

The first calculation involves working out our Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), which is the amount of calories that our body burns at rest.

Men: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) + 5

Women: 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161

 

Step 2: Daily Maintenance Calories

Using your RMR total and the amount of time you partake in physical activity per week, you can determine your daily maintenance calorie amount.

Activity Level Multiplier:

Sedentary = 1.2
Workout 1-3x per week = 1.375
Workout 3-5x per week = 1.55
Workout 6-7x per week = 1.725

Your RMR x Activity Level

So, for example, if your RMR is 1800kcal and you train 2-3 times per week, your daily maintenance calorie would be: 1800 x 1.375 = 2475kcal.

 

Step 3: Calories & Macros

Using step the total from step 2, we can work out the calories required to help us reach our goal and those all important macros!

Ectomorph To Build Muscle: (Maintenance kcal) + 500kcal = Total
Mesomorph To Build Muscle & Tone: (Maintenance kcal) – 250kcal = Total
Endomorph To Lose Weight & Build Muscle: (Maintenance kcal) – 500kcal = Total

 

 

Macronutrient Ratio

We can now determine how many carbs, protein and fats our body requires to reach our goal. Ideal daily percentages are as follows:

Body Type

Carbs

Protein

Fat

Ectomorph

50%

30%

20%

Mesomorph

30%

40%

30%

Endomorph

10%

40%

50%

So, as an example, if you have a maximum daily calorie intake as 1975kcal, and you’re an Endomorph with the goal of trying to lose weight and build muscle, the following calculation would be made to determine your macros.

Carbs: (1975kcal x 10%) / 4 = 50g
Protein: (1975kcal x 40%) / 4 = 198g
Fats: (1975kcal x 50%) / 9 = 110g

As you can see, each body type and their percentages vary. But remember, your metabolism and the amount of physical activity you engage in will also have an impact on how your body responds to diet. This is why you may want to play around with the figures and adjust your percentages accordingly, especially if you hit a plateau or if your body weight/fat starts to oscillate.

 

So, should YOU use this Macronutrient Ratio, or not?

Well, it depends. Although it can really help you to understand what kind of foods to incorporate in to your meals, tracking the number of grams of these three nutrients can be a little time consuming and confusing, particularly at first.

However, if you can find yourself getting used to the idea, we recommend giving it a go. Physique competitors and bodybuilders are fine examples of those who choose to use this method. They have become proficient at it, because it enables them to keep track of their diet, whether they are looking to pack on some serious muscle mass or shred fat for an event.

If you do decide to choose the Macronutrient Ratio, be patient and consistent with your dieting, but don’t loose any sleep worrying!

 

TakeCareOfBody

 

Nutritional Information: Know Your Diet

Six packs are made in the kitchen. That’s how the say goes, right? Okay, so it might not be wholly true, but it does very much signify how nutrition complement’s fitness. And simply put, nutrients are crucial.

They are nourishing substances that obtained from food, which are essential for promoting growth, boosting development and support various functions of the body.

We think it’s important to know what you’re eating and why. There are six basic nutrient classes in total, which includes water. These are classified in to the following subcategories; Macronutrients and Micronutrients.

 

Macronutrients Explained…

Macronutrients are extremely important because they are required for energy, growth and metabolism. They also happen to be the only three nutrients that provide us with calories, with the amounts differing as seen below.

– Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram
– Protein = 4 calories per gram
– Fats = 9 calories per gram

 

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates come in either a Simple or Complex form. They both supply us with energy, but the main difference between the two is how quickly they are digested and absorbed by the body, as well as their chemical structure.

Complex Carbohydrates

Also known as starches, it is these that are deemed healthier and more beneficial for us. They take longer to digest and are often packed with a great amount of vitamins, minerals and fiber. Therefore, when consumed, the body receives a steadier amount of sugar at more consistent rate, providing better sustained energy levels throughout the day.

Simple Carbohydrates

Also know as simple sugars, these are digested more easily and absorbed in to the bloodstream quicker. Consuming an excess of these can results in an ‘insulin spike’ or ‘sugar rush’, where the body receives a sudden burst of energy and raises blood glucose levels. Simple carbohydrates can be found in natural food sources like vegetables, fruit and milk, but most contain refined sugars and very little nutrients, like chocolate, cakes and fizzy drinks.

What Does This Mean?

To summarise, be sensible about the carbohydrates you consume. Focus on incorporating more complex carbohydrates and fruit in to your meals, while limiting the amount of simple carbohydrates you eat.

 

Protein

Protein is a building block for the growth and development of bones, muscles, blood, hair, skin and cartilage. When we consume high-in protein foods, the protein is digested and broken down in to amino acids, which make up a large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissues. Our bodies require these new amino acids to produce new and replace damaged proteins.

This amino acids are split in to two categories; essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are one’s in which the body cannot manufacture, hence why they are important we obtain them from our diet. Non-essential amino acids are the opposite, they are manufactured by the body.

This may seem a little confusing, so simply put, protein is absolutely essential and we require it in our diets to help build and maintain all body cells.

 

Fats

Fats seem to have received a bad reputation in recent times, but it is important to note that they are not all that way inclined. We just need to be able to differentiate between the good and bad types.

Good fats are essential because they help reduce levels of lipoprotein (enables fats to be carried through the bloodstream), aid liver and immune function and maintain cell membranes. However, too much bad fat can be a major health risk, causing problems such as obesity, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure.

The three main types of fats are; Saturated, Unsaturated and Trans Fat.

Saturated Fats (Bad)

Saturated fats mainly come from animal products like meat, poultry, eggs and dairy. Fried food and plant-based oils, like coconut, palm and kernel oil are too high in saturates. As saturated fats contain cholesterol, they raise the cholesterol levels within the blood, therefore increase the risk of heart disease and strokes.

Unsaturated Fats (Good)

Unsaturated fats are generally considered healthier, because they help to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Unlike saturated fats, these are usually liquid at room temperature (not solid), and they come in two different forms; Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated.

They both vary slightly in terms of their benefits and also their chemical structure.

Trans Fats (Bad)

Trans fats are very similar to that of saturated fats, however, they are different in that they have undergone a ‘chemical change’, like manufacturing processes. They are foreign to our body and it is the type of fat to watch out for and avoid altogether. Consuming large amounts can increase cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease/attacks.

What Does This Mean?

To summarise, all fats contain the same amount of calories (9 calories per gram), regardless of where they come from. But cutting down on foods that contain higher saturated fats and swapping them for those that are unsaturated would be a healthier lifestyle choice, with better benefits.

Fats

Saturated (Bad)

Unsaturated (Good)

Trans Fats

Polyunsaturated

Monounsaturated

Butter

Chia Seeds

Avocados

Cakes

Cream

Tuna

Nuts

Biscuits

Full Fat Milk

Sunflower Seeds

Peanut Oil

Pies/Pastries

Custard

Canola Oil

Olive Oil

Fast Food

Cheese

Salmon

Canola Oil

Deep Fried Food

Processed Meats

Mackerel

Almonds

Margarine

Fatty Cuts of Beef, Pork & Lamb

Sardines

Black/Green Olives

Ready Meals

 

Macronutrients

 

Micronutrients

Micronutrients are the opposite to that of Macronutrients, because they are smaller and required in lesser amounts. They can be found in both animal and plant-based food sources, and they are needed to help with development, growth and to maintain a healthy life. Micronutrients are either a form of vitamin or mineral.

 

Vitamins

There are two-types of vitamins; water soluble and fat soluble, which are both deemed essential, because they aid many of the body’s mechanisms and perform functions that other nutrients can’t.

The body obtains vitamins through food consumed or through supplements, which help to boost the vitamin levels within the body. These supplements are a great way of receiving the vitamins we need if we have a job or lifestyle that limits what and when we eat.

Vitamins are classified in to these two categories based upon how they are absorbed and used by the body.

 

Water Soluble Vitamins:

Our bodies do not store water soluble vitamins. They dissolve when ingested and then go in to the blood stream. Since they aren’t stored, a continuous supply of these vitamins are required. If your body has more of these vitamins than it needs, they are disposed of when urinating.

Vitamin:

Description:

Sources:

B1 (Thiamin)

Helps maintain muscle tissue. Helps to keep muscles, nerves and organs functioning. Helps break down and release energy from food.

Meat, wholegrains, fruit, vegetables and dairy.

B2 (Riboflavin)

Helps the body absorb iron from food. Helps to produce steroids and red blood cells. Keeps skin, eyes and nervous system healthy. Helps break down and release energy from food.

Dairy, eggs, meat, fish, seafood, nuts & seeds.

B3 (Viacin)

Helps break down and release energy from food. Helps keep the nervous and digestive system healthy.

Meat, vegetables, wholegrains, eggs and pulses.

B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Helps break down and release energy from food.

Pulses, lentils and legumes, eggs, wholegrains and meats.

B6 (Pyridoxine)

Helps break down and release protein from food and produces haemoglobin. Helps with the maintenance of red blood cell metabolism, the nervous system, immune system.

Eggs, grains, oats, fish, meat, vegetables.

B7 (Biotin)

Helps break down and release energy from food.

Meat, eggs, vegetables, wholegrains, nuts & seeds.

B12 (Cobalamin)

Helps break down and release energy from food. Keeps the nervous system healthy. Processes folic acid and produces red blood cells.

Meat, fish, eggs.

B9 (Folic Acid/Folate)

Produces red blood cells. Helps to reduce the risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida in babies.

Green leafy vegetables, organges/bananas, brown rice, avacado, yeast, liver and eggs.

C

Helps the body to absorb iron. Helps keep cells and tissues healthy.

Fresh fruit and green vegetables.

 

Fat Soluble Vitamins:

Our bodies do store fat soluble vitamins. When they are ingested, they dissolve in fat. The body will use the vitamins that it needs and store the what it doesnt for future use. Therefore, you don’t need to constantly consume these types of vitamins every day.

Vitamin:

Description:

Sources:

A

Keeps skin healthy. Strengthens immune system. Helps vision in dim light.

Liver, carrots, spinach, cheese, oily fish, dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli, kale).

D

Helps grow and maintain healthy teeth and bones. Helps the body absorb calcium. Aids immune functuion.

Oily fish, eggs, cod liver oil. It is also produced naturally when the skin is exposed to natural sunlight.

E

Helps protect against diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Helps blood circulation.

Dark green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts & seeds, tofu, shellfish.

K

Helps with the blood clotting process. Helps build strong bones.

Dark green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, meat, eggs, fish and dairy.



Minerals

 

Minerals

Minerals are much like vitamins in that they assist in many of the body’s functions. They are divided up in to two types; Major and Trace, with the Major mineral being more important, because the body requires and stores these in larger amounts.

Types of Major Minerals:

  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Sulfur

Major minerals primarily help balance water levels within the body, strengthen bones and stabilise protein structures. A high intake of one particular mineral can result in a deficiency of another, but this is more common when you digest an overload of supplements, not through natural food sources.

Types of Trace Minerals:

  • Iron
  • Chromium
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Fluoride
  • Iodine
  • Sulfur
  • Selenium
  • Manganese

All trace minerals each carry out their own set of unique tasks, which are equally important. For example, some help transport oxygen around the body, others help strengthen bones, aid the blood clotting process and support the immune system. They are invaluable.

 

What Does This Mean?

We receive our vitamin and mineral nutrients through the food we consume, however, we can take additional supplements if we feel we aren’t receiving enough through our diet.

Although it is a thin line between ‘too many’ and ‘not enough’ of these Micronutrients, just be sure that you are not exceeding the recommended daily intake levels if you are taking supplements.

 

 

Stay Healthy & Strong,
Steven Wong – CPT, Pn1


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